ПОСТАНОВЛЕНИЕ Европейского суда по правам человека от 24.04.1990"КРЮСЛЕН (kruslin) ПРОТИВ ФРАНЦИИ" [рус. (извлечение), англ.]


[неофициальный перевод]
ЕВРОПЕЙСКИЙ СУД ПО ПРАВАМ ЧЕЛОВЕКА
СУДЕБНОЕ РЕШЕНИЕ
КРЮСЛЕН (KRUSLIN) ПРОТИВ ФРАНЦИИ
(Страсбург, 24 апреля 1990 года)
(Извлечение)
КРАТКОЕ НЕОФИЦИАЛЬНОЕ ИЗЛОЖЕНИЕ ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВ ДЕЛА
A. Основные факты
В апреле 1985 г. Обвинительная палата апелляционного суда Тулузы направила дело г-на Крюслена в суд ассизов департамента Верхняя Гаронна по обвинению его в пособничестве и подстрекательстве к убийству, краже при отягчающих обстоятельствах и попытке совершения кражи также при отягчающих обстоятельствах. Одной из улик явилась запись телефонного разговора, который заявитель вел по аппарату, принадлежащему третьему лицу. Запись была сделана по просьбе судьи, участвовавшего в судебном следствии в Сен-Годенсе в связи с другим делом. Жалоба г-на Крюслена в Кассационный суд относительно законности прослушивания его телефонных разговоров была отклонена.
B. Разбирательство в Комиссии по правам человека
Жалоба г-на Крюслена от 16 октября 1985 г. на нарушение статьи 8 Конвенции была признана Комиссией приемлемой 6 мая 1988 г. В своем докладе от 14 декабря 1988 г. Комиссия выразила мнение (десятью голосами против двух) о том, что в данном случае имело место нарушение статьи 8 Конвенции. Дело было передано Комиссией в Суд 16 марта 1989 г.
ИЗВЛЕЧЕНИЕ ИЗ СУДЕБНОГО РЕШЕНИЯ
ВОПРОСЫ ПРАВА
I. О предполагаемом нарушении статьи 8 Конвенции
25. Г-н Крюслен заявляет, что в данном деле имело место нарушение статьи 8 Конвенции, которая гласит:
"1. Каждый человек имеет право на уважение его личной и семейной жизни, неприкосновенности его жилища и тайны корреспонденции.
2. Не допускается вмешательство со стороны государственных органов в осуществление этого права, за исключением вмешательства, предусмотренного законом и необходимого в демократическом обществе в интересах государственной безопасности и общественного спокойствия, экономического благосостояния страны, в целях предотвращения беспорядков или преступлений, для охраны здоровья или нравственности или защиты прав и свобод других лиц".
Правительство оспаривает это заявление, в то время как Комиссия согласилась с ним по существу.
26. Хотя прослушивались телефонные разговоры г-на Террье, полиция попутно записала несколько телефонных разговоров г-на Крюслена. Один из них имел прямое отношение к возбужденному против него уголовному делу (см. п. 9 - 10 выше). Таким образом, данное прослушивание подпадает под определение "вмешательство публичной власти" в осуществление права заявителя на уважение его "тайны корреспонденции" и его "личной жизни" (Решение по делу Класс и другие от 6 сентября 1978 г. Серия A, т. 28, с. 21, п. 41, и Решение по делу Мэлоуна от 2 августа 1984 г. Серия A, т. 82, с. 30, п. 64). Правительство это не оспаривало.
Указанное вмешательство властей является нарушением статьи 8 Конвенции, если только оно не "предусмотрено законом", не преследует одну или несколько правомерных целей, перечисленных в п. 2 статьи 8, а также не является "необходимым в демократическом обществе" для достижения таких целей.
A. "Предусмотрено законом"
27. Формула "предусмотрено законом" в смысле статьи 8 п. 2 требует, во-первых, чтобы рассматриваемые действия властей имели основания во внутреннем законодательстве. Одновременно данное положение имеет в виду и качество конкретного закона. Она требует, чтобы закон был доступен для заинтересованного лица, которое могло бы предвидеть последствия его применения в отношении себя, а также, чтобы закон не противоречил принципу верховенства права.
1. Наличие законного основания во французском праве
28. Вопрос о том, соблюдено ли в данном деле первое условие, явился предметом спора в Комиссии и Суде.
Заявитель дал на него отрицательный ответ. Он считает, что статья 368 Уголовного кодекса в принципе запрещает прослушивание телефонных разговоров (см. п. 18 выше). Эта норма имеет приоритет над ст. 81 Уголовно-процессуального кодекса, которая запрещает прослушивание не в столь категоричной форме и требует от судебного следователя поступать так, как "предусмотрено законом", то есть в соответствии inter alia со ст. 368 Уголовного кодекса, когда он санкционирует оперативные действия, "необходимые для установления истины" (см. п. 17 выше). Статьи 151 и 152 Уголовно-процессуального кодекса, по мнению заявителя, ничего при этом не меняют, поскольку судебные следователи не могут делегировать офицерам судебной полиции полномочия, которыми не обладают сами. Представитель Комиссии согласился с последним соображением заявителя.
По мнению Правительства, между статьей 368 Уголовного кодекса и статьей 81 Уголовно-процессуального кодекса нет никаких противоречий, особенно если принять во внимание законоподготовительные материалы к Уголовному кодексу (см. п. 18 выше). Правительство утверждает, что Уголовно-процессуальный кодекс не содержит исчерпывающего списка оперативных мероприятий, находящихся в распоряжении судебного следователя. Например, в нем нет обычных следственных действий такого рода, как фотографирование, снятие отпечатков пальцев, наружное наблюдение, выемка, очные ставки свидетелей (см. п. 15 выше). Статью 81 уточняют положения статей 151 и 152, а также сложившаяся судебная практика (см. п. 17 и 20 - 21 выше). Под понятием "закон" статья 8 п. 2 Конвенции понимает закон, действующий в конкретной правовой системе. В данном случае - это соединение писаного права (главным образом статей 81, 151 и 152 Уголовно-процессуального кодекса) и судебной практики, толкующей нормы первого.
Представитель Комиссии считает, что в континентальных странах, включая Францию, только "правовой акт общего действия", независимо от того, принят он Парламентом или другим органом, может иметь силу "закона" для целей статьи 8 п. 2 Конвенции. Известно, что в ряде своих прежних Решений Суд высказался в том смысле, что "понятие "закон" в выражении "предусмотрено законом" включает как писаное, так и неписаное право" (см. Решение по делу "Санди таймс" от 26 апреля 1979 г. Серия A, т. 30, с. 30, п. 47, Решение по делу Даджена от 22 октября 1981 г. Серия A, т. 45, с. 19, п. 44, а также по делу Чаппела от 30 марта 1989 г. Серия A, т. 152, с. 22, п. 52). Однако, как заявил представитель Комиссии, в перечисленных выше судебных делах Суд имел в виду только систему "общего права". Но эта система радикально отличается от французской системы. В последней судебная практика является, несомненно, очень важным, но "вторичным" источником права, в то время как под понятием "закон" Конвенция понимает "первичный источник права".
29. Подобно Правительству и представителю Комиссии, Суд прежде всего подчеркивает, что толкование и применение внутреннего права - это прерогатива национальных властей и особенно судов (среди прочих Решений см. вышеупомянутое Решение по делу Мэлоуна. Серия A, т. 82, с. 36, п. 79, и Решение по делу Эриксона от 22 июня 1989 г. Серия A, т. 156, с. 25, п. 62). Поэтому Суд не должен придерживаться мнения, противоречащего позиции национальных властей, по поводу того, соответствует или нет прослушивание телефонных разговоров, осуществляемое по постановлению судебных следователей, статье 368 Уголовного кодекса. В течение многих лет национальные суды, и в частности Кассационный суд, рассматривают статьи 81, 151 и 152 Уголовно-процессуального кодекса в качестве юридического основания возможности прослушивания телефонных разговоров офицером судебной полиции на основании предписания судебного следователя.
Нельзя игнорировать сложившуюся судебную практику. В отношении статьи 8 п. 2 Конвенции и других аналогичных статей Суд всегда понимал и понимает термин "закон" в его "сущностном", а не "формальном" смысле. Он включает как акты более низкой категории, чем закон (см., в частности, Решение по делу Де Вильде, Оомс и Версип против Бельгии от 18 июня 1971 г. Серия A, т. 12, с. 45, п. 93), так и неписаное право. Решения по делам "Санди таймс", Даджена и Чаппела касались, правда, Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии, однако было бы неправильным преувеличить различия между странами общего и континентального права, на что справедливо указало Правительство. Статутное право значимо и в странах общего права. И наоборот, судебная практика традиционно играет столь существенную роль в континентальных странах, что целые направления позитивного права в значительной степени являются ее результатом. Безусловно, Суд неоднократно учитывал это (в частности, Решение по делу Мюллер и другие от 24 мая 1988 г. Серия A, т. 133, с. 20, п. 29, Решение по делу Салабяку от 7 октября 1988 г. Серия A, т. 14 A, с. 16 - 17, п. 29, Решение по делу АО "Маркт интерн Верлаг" и Клаус Бирман от 20 ноября 1989 г. Серия A, т. 165, с. 18 - 19, п. 30). Если бы Суд не принимал во внимание судебную практику, то тем самым он подорвал бы правовую систему континентальных государств почти в такой же степени, в какой Решение по делу "Санди таймс" от 26 апреля 1979 г. (Серия A, т. 30, с. 30, п. 47) "потрясло бы до основания" правовую систему Великобритании, если бы Суд исключил общее право из понятия "закон в смысле Конвенции". В сфере действия писаного права "законом" является действующий правовой акт, как он истолкован компетентными судебными органами в свете новых практических обстоятельств.
Таким образом, вмешательство властей, на которое жалуется заявитель, имеет законное обоснование во французском праве.
2. "Качество закона"
30. Второе требование, вытекающее из формулы Конвенции "предусмотрено законом", т.е. требование о доступности закона, не создает трудностей в настоящем деле.
Однако этого нельзя сказать в отношении третьего требования, требования о предсказуемости закона, если проанализировать истинный смысл и суть принимаемых властями мер. Как указал Суд в Решении по делу Мэлоуна от 2 августа 1984 г., статья 8 п. 2 Конвенции "не ограничивается тем, что отсылает к внутреннему праву, но говорит также о качестве закона, который должен соответствовать принципу "верховенства права". Данное положение "подразумевает..., что во внутреннем праве должны существовать оградительные меры от произвольного вмешательства властей в осуществление гражданами своих прав, гарантированных пунктом 1... Именно там, где исполнительная власть осуществляет свои функции втайне, становится особенно очевидной опасность произвола... Несомненно... требования Конвенции, особенно в отношении предсказуемости закона, не могут быть неизменными в таком специальном вопросе, как перехват распространяемой по каналам связи информации для целей полицейского расследования".
- в ходе такого расследования:
"соответствующий закон может создавать некоторые ограничения для лица. В частности, требование предсказуемости не рассчитано на то, что лицо может "предвидеть", когда власти планируют перехватить его информацию, и соответственно скорректировать свое поведение. Тем не менее формулировки закона должны быть достаточно ясными и понятными, с тем чтобы предоставить гражданам необходимую информацию относительно обстоятельств и условий, при которых публичная власть наделяется полномочиями для скрытого и потенциально опасного вмешательства в осуществление права индивидуума на уважение его личной жизни и корреспонденции.
... [В Судебном решении от 25 марта 1983 г. по делу Силвер и другие Суд] постановил, что "в законе, который оставляет свободу усмотрения, должны быть указаны его пределы". При этом детали соблюдения норм и процедур не обязательно должны указываться в законе (там же, Серия A, т. 61, с. 33 - 34, п. 88 - 89). Степень детализации, требуемой в этой связи от "закона", зависит от специфики ситуации... Поскольку применение оперативных мер по тайному перехвату информации скрыто от заинтересованных лиц, равно как и от широкой общественности, то если бы "закон" предоставил исполнительной власти право самостоятельно устанавливать пределы усмотрения, то он вступил бы в противоречие с принципом верховенства права".
- о роли судьи:
"она не знает границ. Именно закон конкретно и точно должен определить пределы и способы осуществления такого рода полномочий ... с тем, чтобы гарантировать лицу надлежащую защиту его прав от произвольного вмешательства властей" (Серия A, т. 30, с. 30, п. 47; т. 82, с. 32 - 33, п. 67 - 68).
31. Правительство заявило, что Суд должен проявлять осторожность и не решать в абстрактной форме, соответствует ли французское законодательство Конвенции, равно как не выносить решений de lege ferenda. Поэтому Суду, как считает Правительство, не надо касаться вопросов, не относящихся к делу г-на Крюслена, таких как прослушивание телефонных разговоров в связи с небольшими правонарушениями, или причин отсутствия нормы о том, что лицо, телефон которого прослушивался, должно быть проинформировано об этом в случае, если дело против него прекращено. Такие вопросы действительно связаны с условием "необходимо в демократическом обществе", но должны рассматриваться конкретно в обстоятельствах каждого дела.
32. Суд не может согласиться с этими доводами Правительства. Призванный установить, действительно ли обжалуемое вмешательство властей "предусмотрено законом", Суд, безусловно, должен оценить соответствующий французский "закон" с точки зрения требований фундаментального принципа верховенства права. Такой анализ обязательно будет несколько абстрактным. Тем не менее он говорит кое-что о качестве национальных правовых норм, применимых в настоящем деле г-на Крюслена.
33. Прослушивание и другие формы перехвата телефонных разговоров представляют собой серьезное вмешательство в личную жизнь и корреспонденцию и поэтому должны быть основаны на "законе", который в этой части должен быть особенно точным. Требуются четкие и детально разработанные правила проведения подобных оперативных мероприятий, тем более что соответствующая технология постоянно развивается и усложняется.
В Комиссии (дополнительные замечания от 4 июля 1988 г., с. 4 - 7, суммированы в п. 37 доклада) и (в несколько иной форме) в Суде Правительство сообщило о семнадцати гарантиях, которые, по его словам, предусмотрены французским правом.
Они касаются как самого прослушивания телефонных разговоров, так и использования полученной таким образом информации, а равно средств исправления любого допущенного нарушения. Все эти гарантии действовали в отношении заявителя.
34. Суд никоим образом не умаляет ценности некоторых из этих гарантий, как-то: необходимость получения разрешения судебного следователя - независимого магистрата; контроль, который он осуществляет за действиями офицеров судебной полиции; контроль за действиями самого судебного следователя, осуществляемый Обвинительной палатой, самими судами, а в случае необходимости и Кассационным судом; исключение любых "хитростей" и "уловок", то есть всякого рода "ловушек" или провокаций в процессе прослушивания телефонных разговоров; уважение конфиденциальности отношений между подозреваемыми или обвиняемыми и их адвокатами.
Однако необходимо отметить, что только некоторые из этих гарантий предусмотрены статьями 81, 151 и 152 Уголовно-процессуального кодекса в явной форме. Другие складывались в судебной практике в течение ряда лет, а большинство из них только после поступления жалобы на прослушивание телефонных разговоров от г-на Крюслена (июнь 1982 г.). Некоторые гарантии так и не нашли явного отражения в судебной практике, по крайней мере согласно собранной Судом информации. Похоже, что Правительство выводит эти гарантии из общих принципов или путем аналогии закона, или из судебных решений о следственных мероприятиях иного рода, например процедуры обыска. Хотя такая "экстраполяция" сама по себе вполне возможна, тем не менее в контексте данного дела она не обеспечивает достаточной юридической надежности.
35. Самым главным является то, что в настоящее время вышеуказанная система не позволяет предоставить достаточных гарантий против возможности различного рода злоупотреблений. Например, ни в одном документе не определены категории лиц, телефоны которых могут быть прослушаны по постановлению суда, равно как не определен характер правонарушений, при котором возможно прослушивание. Ничто не обязывает судью определить продолжительность данной меры. Равным образом не установлен порядок составления итоговых протоколов, фиксирующих прослушанные разговоры. Не оговорены меры предосторожности, которые должны приниматься для сохранения записей в целости и сохранности на случай возможной проверки их судьей (сейчас он с трудом может установить номер и длину оригинальных лент) или адвокатом. Не определены обстоятельства, при которых записи могут или должны быть размагничены, а также когда необходимо уничтожать ленты с записями (например, при снятии обвинения или при оправдании судом). Информация, предоставленная Правительством по этим вопросам, свидетельствует в лучшем случае о существовании определенной практики, которая не является обязательной за отсутствием закона и сложившейся судебной практики.
36. Короче говоря, французское право, писаное и неписаное, не устанавливает с разумной ясностью соответствующие пределы усмотрения властей в данной сфере, а также процедуру и методы проведения специальных оперативных мероприятий. Все вышесказанное еще более соответствовало истине в тот период, когда прослушивались разговоры заявителя. Таким образом, г-ну Крюслену не была гарантирована минимальная степень защиты, на которую имеют право граждане в условиях верховенства права в демократическом обществе (см. вышеупомянутое Решение по делу Мэлоуна. Серия A, т. 82, с. 36, п. 79).
В связи с этим Суд констатирует нарушение статьи 8 Конвенции.
B. Цель и необходимость вмешательства
37. С учетом вышеизложенного Суд, равно как и Комиссия (см. п. 77 доклада Комиссии), не видит необходимости в рассмотрении вопроса соблюдения по данному делу других требований статьи 8 п. 2.
II. Применение статьи 50 Конвенции
38. Статья 50 Конвенции гласит:
"Если Суд установит, что решение или мера, принятые судебными или иными властями Высокой Договаривающейся Стороны, полностью или частично противоречат обязательствам, вытекающим из настоящей Конвенции, а также если внутреннее право упомянутой Стороны допускает лишь частичное возмещение последствий такого решения или такой меры, то решением Суда, если в этом есть необходимость, предусматривается справедливое возмещение потерпевшей стороне".
Заявитель требует, во-первых, компенсацию в сумме 1000000 французских франков за пятнадцатилетнее тюремное заключение (см. п. 13 выше), которое, как он утверждает, явилось прямым результатом нарушения статьи 8 Конвенции, поскольку именно прослушивание его телефонных разговоров привело к возбуждению против него уголовного дела. Он требует также возмещения стоимости услуг адвоката, а именно 20000 французских франков, по подготовке им апелляции на Решение обвинительной палаты от 16 апреля 1985 г. и 50000 французских франков за услуги защитника в суде ассизов департамента Верхняя Гаронна и в Кассационном суде. Заявитель не выдвинул требования о возмещении расходов в связи с разбирательством дела в Страсбурге, поскольку Комиссия и Суд предоставили ему бесплатную судебную помощь.
Правительство и представитель Комиссии не выразили своего мнения по этим вопросам.
39. С учетом обстоятельств данного дела сам факт признания Судом нарушения статьи 8 является достаточным справедливым возмещением за требуемый заявителем ущерб. Соответственно отпадает необходимость в присуждении ему денежной компенсации.
40. Издержки и расходы, понесенные заявителем в судах, вынесших ему обвинительные приговоры, не могут быть приняты во внимание Судом. По заявлению г-на Крюслена, прослушивание телефонных разговоров, вне всякого сомнения, было использовано против него в двух судебных делах подряд. Однако Комиссия и Суд занимались только вопросом выполнения требований Конвенции в связи с делом Жерб д"Ор (см. п. 14 in fine выше).
Тем не менее сумма в 20000 французских франков, испрашиваемая заявителем в связи с последним делом, является обоснованной и не завышенной и поэтому должна быть присуждена заявителю.
ПО ЭТИМ ОСНОВАНИЯМ СУД ЕДИНОГЛАСНО
1. Постановил, что имело место нарушение статьи 8;
2. Постановил, что настоящее Судебное решение само по себе представляет достаточное справедливое возмещение ущерба, на которое претендует заявитель;
3. Постановил, что государство - ответчик должно выплатить заявителю 20000 (двадцать тысяч) французских франков в возмещение понесенных им судебных издержек и расходов;
4. Отклонил требования заявителя по статье 50 Конвенции в остальном.
Совершено на английском и французском языках и оглашено во Дворце прав человека в Страсбурге 24 апреля 1990 г.
Председатель
Рольф РИССДАЛ
Грефье
Марк-Андре ЭЙССЕН



EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
CASE OF KRUSLIN v. FRANCE
JUDGMENT
(Strasbourg, 24.IV.1990)
In the Kruslin case <*>,
--------------------------------
<*> Note by the Registrar: The case is numbered 7/1989/167/223. The first number is the case"s position on the list of cases referred to the Court in the relevant year (second number). The last two numbers indicate the case"s position on the list of cases referred to the Court since its creation and on the list of the corresponding originating applications to the Commission.
The European Court of Human Rights, sitting, in accordance with Article 43 (art. 43) of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms ("the Convention") and the relevant provisions of the Rules of Court, as a Chamber composed of the following judges:
Mr R. Ryssdal, President,
Mrs D. Bindschedler-Robert,
Mr F. {Golcuklu}, <*>
Mr F. Matscher,
Mr L.-E. Pettiti,
Mr B. Walsh,
Sir Vincent Evans,
and also of Mr M.-A. Eissen, Registrar, and Mr H. Petzold, Deputy Registrar,
--------------------------------
<*> Здесь и далее по тексту слова на национальном языке набраны латинским шрифтом и выделены фигурными скобками.
Having deliberated in private on 26 October 1989 and 27 March 1990,
Delivers the following judgment, which was adopted on the last-mentioned date:
PROCEDURE
1. The case was referred to the Court by the European Commission of Human Rights ("the Commission") on 16 March 1989, within the three-month period laid down by Article 32 § 1 and Article 47 (art. 32-1, art. 47) of the Convention. It originated in an application (no. 11801/85) against the French Republic lodged with the Commission under Article 25 (art. 25) by a national of that State, Mr Jean Kruslin, on 16 October 1985.
The Commission"s request referred to Articles 44 and 48 (art. 44, art. 48) and to the declaration whereby France recognised the compulsory jurisdiction of the Court (Article 46) (art. 46). The object of the request was to obtain a decision as to whether the facts of the case disclosed a breach by the respondent State of its obligations under Article 8 (art. 8).
2. In response to the enquiry made in accordance with Rule 33 § 3 (d) of the Rules of Court, the applicant stated that he wished to take part in the proceedings and designated the lawyer who would represent him (Rule 30).
3. On 30 March 1989 the President of the Court decided, under Rule 21 § 6 and in the interests of sound administration of justice, that a single Chamber should be constituted to consider both the instant case and the Huvig case <*>.
--------------------------------
<*> Note by the Registrar: Case no. 4/1989/164/220.
The Chamber thus constituted included ex officio Mr L.-E. Pettiti, the elected judge of French nationality (Article 43 of the Convention) (art. 43), and Mr R. Ryssdal, the President of the Court (Rule 21 § 3 (b)). On the same day, 30 March 1989, in the presence of the Registrar, the President drew by lot the names of the other five members, namely Mrs D. Bindschedler-Robert, Mr F. {Golcuklu}, Mr F. Matscher, Mr B. Walsh and Sir Vincent Evans (Article 43 in fine of the Convention and Rule 21 § 4) (art. 43).
4. Mr Ryssdal assumed the office of President of the Chamber (Rule 21 § 5) and, through the Registrar, consulted the Agent of the French Government ("the Government"), the Delegate of the Commission and the lawyer for the applicant on the need for a written procedure (Rule 37 § 1). In accordance with his orders and instructions, the Registrar received, on 10 July 1989, Mr Kruslin"s claims under Article 50 (art. 50) of the Convention and, on 17 August, the Government"s memorial. On 19 October the Secretariat of the Commission informed the Registrar that the Delegate would submit his observations at the hearing.
On 10 and 16 October 1989 the Commission supplied the Registrar with various documents he had asked for on the President"s instructions.
5. Having consulted, through the Registrar, those who would be appearing before the Court, the President had directed on 21 June 1989 that the oral proceedings should open on 24 October 1989 (Rule 38).
On 29 September he granted the applicant legal aid (Rule 4 of the Addendum to the Rules of Court).
6. The hearing took place in public in the Human Rights Building, Strasbourg, on the appointed day. The Court had held a preparatory meeting immediately beforehand.
There appeared before the Court:
(a) for the Government
Mr J.-P. Puissochet, Head of the Department of Legal Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Agent,
Mrs I. Chaussade, magistrat, on secondment to the Department of Legal Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Miss M. Picard, magistrat, on secondment to the Department of Legal Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Mr M. Dobkine, magistrat, Department of Criminal Affairs and Pardons, Ministry of Justice,
Mr F. Le Gunehec, magistrat, Department of Criminal Affairs and Pardons, Ministry of Justice, Counsel;
(b) for the Commission
Mr S. Trechsel, Delegate;
(c) for the applicant
Ms C. Waquet, avocat at the Conseil d"Etat and the Court of Cassation, Counsel.
The Court heard addresses by Mr Puissochet for the Government, by Mr Trechsel for the Commission and by Ms Waquet for the applicant, as well as their answers to its questions.
7. On various dates between 24 October and 7 December 1989 the Government and Mr Kruslin"s representative produced several documents, either of their own accord or because the Court had requested them at the hearing. To one of them Ms Waquet had attached a short memorandum of observations, and the President consented to this being filed; she also supplemented her client"s claims for just satisfaction with pleadings which reached the registry on 24 November.
AS TO THE FACTS
I. Circumstances of the case
8. Mr Jean Kruslin, who is unemployed and has no fixed abode, is currently in custody at Fresnes (Val-de-Marne).
9. On 8 and 14 June 1982 an investigating judge at Saint-Gaudens (Haute-Garonne), who was inquiring into the murder of a banker, Mr Jean Baron, at {Montrejeau} on the night of 7 - 8 June ("the Baron case"), issued two warrants to the commanding officer of the investigation section of the Toulouse gendarmerie. In the second of these the officer was instructed to tap the telephone of a suspect, Mr Dominique Terrieux, who lived in Toulouse.
From 15 to 17 June the gendarmes intercepted seventeen telephone calls in all. The applicant, who was staying with Mr Terrieux at the time and occasionally used his telephone, had been a party to several of the telephone conversations and more especially to one between 9 p.m. and 11 p.m. on 17 June with someone calling him from a public telephone-box in Perpignan ({Pyrenees}-Orientales).
During their short conversation the two men had spoken in veiled terms about a different case from the Baron case, concerning in particular the murder on 29 May 1982 of Mr Henri {Pere}, an employee of the Gerbe d"Or jewellers in Toulouse ("the Gerbe d"Or case"). The gendarmes reported this the next day to colleagues from the criminal-investigation branch of the police. On 11 June 1982 an investigating judge in Toulouse had issued a warrant to these officers to investigate that case, and they now immediately listened to the recording of the telephone conversation in question, had it transcribed and appended the text to a report drawn up at midnight on 18 June; the original tape remained, sealed, with the gendarmerie.
10. At dawn on 18 June the gendarmes arrested Mr Kruslin at Mr Terrieux"s home and held him in custody in connection with the Baron case.
Early that afternoon he was questioned about the Gerbe d"Or case by the police (who had already questioned him on 15 June and then released him after about four hours) and - the next day, it seems - he was charged together with Mr Terrieux and one Patrick Antoine with murder, aggravated theft and attempted aggravated theft. On 25 October 1982 the Toulouse investigating judge held a confrontation of the three men, during which after the seals had been broken in their presence - the aforementioned taperecording was heard in its entirety, including the conversation on the evening of 17 June.
Mr Kruslin adopted the same attitude as when questioned by the police on 18 June: he protested his innocence and denied - in respect of this conversation but not of the others - that the voice was his. Mr Terrieux now said that he did not recognise the voice, whereas he had identified it earlier.
The tape was resealed, again in the presence of the persons charged. The applicant refused to sign either the report or the form recording the sealing.
He subsequently applied for an examination by experts, and the investigating judge granted the application in an order of 10 February 1983. In their report of 8 June 1983, however, the three experts who were appointed felt able to state "with 80% certainty" that the voice they had analysed was indeed Mr Kruslin"s.
11. Before the Indictment Division (chambre d"accusation) of the Toulouse Court of Appeal, to which the case was sent after the judicial investigation was completed, the applicant requested that the recording of the disputed conversation should be ruled inadmissible in evidence because it had been made in connection with proceedings which, he claimed, did not concern him - the Baron case. On 16 April 1985 the Indictment Division dismissed this plea in the following terms:
"... while this telephone tapping was ordered by the investigating judge at the Saint-Gaudens tribunal de grande instance in connection with other proceedings, the fact remains that judges are not prohibited by either Article 11 [which lays down the principle that judicial investigations shall be confidential] or Articles R.155 and R.156 of the Code of Criminal Procedure from deciding to include in criminal proceedings evidence from other proceedings which may assist them and help to establish the truth, on the sole condition - which was satisfied in the instant case - that such evidence is added under an adversarial procedure and that it has been submitted to the parties for them to comment on ..."
In so doing, the Indictment Division, it appears, took as its inspiration - and extended by analogy to the field of telephone tapping the settled case-law of the Criminal Division of the Court of Cassation, developed in respect of other investigative measures (see, for example, 11 March 1964, Bulletin (Bull.) no. 86; 13 January 1970, Bull. no. 21; 19 December 1973, Bull. no. 480; 26 May and 30 November 1976, Bull. nos. 186 and 345; 16 March and 2 October 1981, Bull. nos. 91 and 256).
In the same decision the Indictment Division committed Mr Kruslin - with four others, including Mr Terrieux and Mr Antoine - for trial at the Haute-Garonne Assize Court on charges, in his case, of aiding and abetting a murder, aggravated theft and attempted aggravated theft.
12. The applicant appealed to the Court of Cassation on points of law. In the second of his five grounds of appeal he relied on Article 8 (art. 8) of the Convention. He criticised the Indictment Division of the Toulouse Court of Appeal for having
"refused to rule that the evidence from telephone tapping in
connection with other proceedings was inadmissible;
whereas interference by the public authorities with a person"s private and family life, home and correspondence is not necessary in a democratic society for the prevention of crime unless it is in accordance with a law that satisfies the following two requirements: it must be of a quality such that it is sufficiently clear in its terms to give citizens an adequate indication of the circumstances in which and the conditions on which public authorities are empowered to resort to this secret and potentially dangerous interference with the right to respect for private life and correspondence, and it must define the scope and manner of exercise of such a power clearly enough to give the individual adequate protection from arbitrary interference; these requirements are not satisfied by any provision of French law, and particularly not by Article 81 of the Code of Criminal Procedure".
In his supplementary pleadings of 11 June 1985 (pp. 5 - 8) counsel for Mr Kruslin relied on the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, both in regard to telephone tapping (Klass and Others judgment of 6 September 1978 and Malone judgment of 2 August 1984, Series A nos. 28 and 82) and in other respects (Golder judgment of 21 February 1975, Sunday Times judgment of 26 April 1979 and Silver and Others judgment of 25 March 1983, Series A nos. 18, 30 and 61).
The Criminal Division of the Court of Cassation dismissed the appeal in a judgment of 23 July 1985. As regards the point in question it gave the following reasons for its decision:
"...
An examination of the evidence shows that the transcript of a tape recording of conversations in calls made on Terrieux"s telephone line was included in the file of the murder investigation then being conducted by the Toulouse investigating judge following the death of Henri {Pere} at the hands of a person or persons unknown; this recording had been made pursuant to a warrant issued by the investigating judge at Saint-Gaudens in connection with the investigation of another murder, likewise committed by a person or persons unknown; it was because of its relevance to the investigation into {Pere"s} death that the transcription was made by senior police officers acting under a warrant issued by the investigating judge in Toulouse;
The tenor of the conversations recorded was made known to the various persons concerned, notably Kruslin, who was asked to account for them both during the inquiries made pursuant to the investigating judge"s warrant and after he was charged; furthermore, an examination of the tape recording by an expert, whose report was subsequently added to the evidence, was made pursuant to a lawful decision by the investigating judge;
That being so, the Indictment Division did not lay itself open to the objection raised in the ground of appeal by refusing to rule that the evidence from telephone tapping in connection with other proceedings was inadmissible;
In the first place, there is no statutory provision prohibiting the inclusion in criminal proceedings of evidence from other proceedings which may assist the judges and help to establish the truth; the sole condition is that such evidence should be added under an adversarial procedure - which was so in this case, in which the documents were submitted to the parties for them to comment on;
In the second place, it is clear from Articles 81 and 151 of the Code of Criminal Procedure and from the general principles of criminal procedure that, among other things, firstly, telephone tapping may be ordered by an investigating judge, by means of a warrant, only where there is a presumption that a specific offence has been committed which has given rise to the investigation which the judge has been assigned to undertake, and that it cannot be directed, on the off chance, against a whole category of offences; and, secondly, that the interception ordered must be carried out under the supervision of the investigating judge, without any subterfuge or ruse being employed and in such a way that the exercise of the rights of the defence cannot be jeopardised;
These provisions governing the use of telephone tapping by an investigating judge, which have not been shown to have been infringed in the instant case, satisfy the requirements of Article 8 (art. 8) of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms;
..." (Bull. no. 275, pp. 713 - 715)
13. It appears from the file that the recording of the telephone conversation of 17 June 1982 was a decisive piece of evidence in the proceedings against the applicant. These proceedings ended, on 28 November 1986, with a judgment of the Haute-Garonne Assize Court. Mr Kruslin was acquitted of murder but sentenced to fifteen years" imprisonment for armed robbery and attempted armed robbery; an appeal by him to the Court of Cassation was dismissed on 28 October 1987. He seems always to have protested his innocence.
14. In the Baron case the Indictment Division of the Toulouse Court of Appeal likewise committed the applicant, on 2 June 1987, for trial at the Haute-Garonne Assizes, together with Mr Antoine and one Charles Croce. At that trial too he alleged that the telephone tapping carried out from 15 to 17 June 1982 was inadmissible; on 4 November 1987 the Criminal Division of the Court of Cassation dismissed this plea on grounds identical, mutatis mutandis, to those in its judgment of 23 July 1985 previously cited (see paragraph 12 above - Recueil Dalloz Sirey (DS) 1988, sommaires, p. 195). On 2 December 1988 the Assize Court sentenced the applicant to life imprisonment for premeditated murder; he lodged an appeal on points of law, but this was dismissed by the Criminal Division of the Court of Cassation on 6 November 1989.
The complaints he made to the Commission, however, related solely to the telephone tapping whose results were used in the Gerbe d"Or case.
II. The relevant legislation and case-law
15. French criminal law adopts the principle that any kind of evidence is admissible: "unless otherwise provided by statute, any type of evidence shall be admissible to substantiate a criminal charge ..." (Article 427 of the Code of Criminal Procedure).
There is no statutory provision which expressly empowers investigating judges to carry out or order telephone tapping, or indeed to carry out or order various measures which are nonetheless in common use, such as the taking of photographs or fingerprints, shadowing, surveillance, requisitions, confrontations of witnesses and reconstructions of crimes. On the other hand, the Code of Criminal Procedure does expressly confer power on them to take several other measures, which it regulates in detail, such as pre-trial detention, seizure of property and searches.
16. Under the old Code of Criminal Procedure the Court of Cassation had condemned the use of telephone tapping by investigating judges, at least in circumstances which it regarded as disclosing, on the part of a judge or the police, a lack of "fairness" incompatible with the rules of criminal procedure and the safeguards essential to the rights of the defence (combined divisions, 31 January 1888, {ministere} public c. Vigneau, Dalloz 1888, jurisprudence, pp. 73 - 74; Criminal Division, 12 June 1952, Imbert, Bull. no. 153, pp. 258 - 260; Civil Division, second section, 18 March 1955, {epoux} Jolivot c. {epoux} Lubrano et autres, DS 1955, jurisprudence, pp. 573 - 574, and Gazette du Palais (GP) 1955, jurisprudence, p. 249). Some trial courts and courts of appeal which had to deal with the issue, on the other hand, showed some willingness to hold that such telephone tapping was lawful if there had been neither "entrapment" nor "provocation"; this view was based on Article 90 of the former Code (Seine Criminal Court, Tenth Division, 13 February 1957, {ministere} public contre X, GP 1957, jurisprudence, pp. 309 - 310).
17. Since the 1958 Code of Criminal Procedure came into force, the courts have had regard in this respect to, among others, Articles 81, 151 and 152, which provide:
Article 81
(first, fourth and fifth paragraphs)
"The investigating judge shall, in accordance with the law, take all the investigative measures which he deems useful for establishing the truth.
...
If the investigating judge is unable to take all the investigative measures himself, he may issue warrants to senior police officers (officiers de police judiciaire) in order to have them carry out all the necessary investigative measures on the conditions and subject to the reservations provided for in Articles 151 and 152.
The investigating judge must verify the information thus gathered.
..."
Article 151
(as worded at the material time)
"An investigating judge may issue a warrant requiring any judge of his court, any district-court judge within the territorial jurisdiction of that court, any senior police officer (officier de police judiciaire) with authority in that jurisdiction or any investigating judge to undertake any investigative measures he considers necessary in places coming under their respective jurisdictions.
The warrant shall indicate the nature of the offence to which the proceedings relate. It shall be dated and signed by the issuing judge and shall bear his seal.
It may only order investigative measures directly connected with the prosecution of the offence to which the proceedings relate.
..."
Article 152
"The judges or senior police officers instructed to act shall exercise, within the limits of the warrant, all the powers of the investigating judge.
..."
18. An Act of 17 July 1970 added to the Civil Code an Article 9 guaranteeing to everyone "the right to respect for his private life". It also added to the Criminal Code an Article 368, whereby:
"Anyone who wilfully intrudes on the privacy of others:
1. By listening to, recording or transmitting by means of any device, words spoken by a person in a private place, without that person"s consent;
2. ...
shall be liable to imprisonment for not less than two months and not more than one year and a fine ... or to only one of these two penalties."
During the preparatory work, one of the vice-chairmen of the National Assembly"s Statutes Committee, Mr Zimmermann, sought "certain assurances" that this enactment "[would] not prevent the investigating judge from issuing strictly within the provisions of the law warrants to have telephones tapped, obviously without making use of any form of inducement and in compliance with all the legal procedures" (Journal officiel, National Assembly, 1970 proceedings, p. 2074). The Minister of Justice, Mr {Rene} Pleven, replied: "... there is no question of interfering with the powers of investigating judges, who are indeed empowered, in the circumstances laid down by law, to order tapping"; he added a little later: "When an official taps a telephone, he can only do so lawfully if he has a warrant from a judicial authority or is acting on the instructions of a minister" (ibid., p. 2075). Both Houses of Parliament thereupon passed the Bill without amending it on this point.
19. Article 41 of the Post and Telecommunications Code provides that any public servant or anyone authorised to assist with the performance of relevant official duties who breaches the secrecy of correspondence entrusted to the telecommunications service shall be liable to the penalties provided for in Article 187 of the Criminal Code - a fine, imprisonment and temporary disqualification from any public office or employment. Article 42 provides that anyone who, without permission from the sender or the addressee, divulges, publishes or uses the content of correspondence transmitted over the air or by telephone shall be liable to the penalties provided for in Article 378 of the Criminal Code (on professional confidentiality) - a fine or imprisonment.
General Instruction no. 500-78 on the telephone service - intended for Post and Telecommunications Authority officials - contains the following provisions, however, given here in the amended version of 1964 (Article 24 of Part III):
"Postmasters and sub-postmasters are required to comply with any requests that ... calls to or from a specified telephone should be monitored by the relevant authority, made by:
1. An investigating judge (Articles 81, 92 and 94 of the Code of Criminal Procedure) or any judge or senior police officer (officier de police judiciaire) to whom a judicial warrant has been issued (Art. 152);
..."
The General Instruction was published in the official bulletin of the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications and was described by the Government as an "implementing regulation".
20. The striking development of various forms of serious crime - large-scale thefts and robberies, terrorism, drug-trafficking - appears in France to have led to a marked increase in the frequency with which investigating judges resort to telephone tapping. The courts have as a result given many more decisions on the subject than formerly; telephone tapping has not been held to be unlawful in itself, although the courts have occasionally shown some distaste for it (Paris Court of Appeal, Ninth Criminal Division, 28 March 1960, Cany et Rozenbaum, GP 1960, jurisprudence, pp. 253 - 254).
The decisions cited to the Court by the Government, the Commission and the applicant, or of which the Court has had cognisance by its own means, are mostly of later date than the facts of the instant case (June 1982) and have gradually provided a number of clarifications. These do not all stem from judgments of the Court of Cassation, and do not for the time being constitute a uniform body of case-law, because the decisions or reasons given in some of the cases have remained unique. They may be summarised as follows.
(a) Articles 81 and 151 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (see paragraph 17 above) empower investigating judges - and them alone, as far as judicial investigations are concerned - to carry out telephone tapping or, much more commonly in practice, to issue a warrant to that effect to a senior police officer (officier de police judiciaire) within the meaning of Article 16 (see, in particular, Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, 9 October 1980, Tournet, Bull. no. 255, pp. 662 - 664; 24 April 1984, Peureux, Huvig et autre, DS 1986, jurisprudence, pp. 125 - 128; 23 July 1985 - see paragraph 12 above; 4 November 1987 - see paragraph 14 above; 15 February 1988, Schroeder, and 15 March 1988, Arfi, Bull. no. 128, pp. 327 - 335). Telephone tapping is an "investigative measure" which may sometimes be "useful for establishing the truth". It is comparable to the seizure of letters or telegrams (see, among other authorities, Poitiers Court of Appeal, Criminal Division, 7 January 1960, Manchet, Juris-Classeur {periodique} (JCP) 1960, jurisprudence, no. 11599, and Paris Court of Appeal, Indictment Division, 27 June 1984, F. et autre, DS 1985, jurisprudence, pp. 93 - 96) and it similarly does not offend the provisions of Article 368 of the Criminal Code, having regard to the legislative history and to the principle that any kind of evidence is admissible (see paragraphs 15 and 18 above and Strasbourg tribunal de grande instance, 15 February 1983, S. et autres, unreported; Colmar Court of Appeal, 9 March 1984, Chalvignac et autre, unreported but cited by the Government at the Commission hearing on 6 May 1988; Paris Court of Appeal, Indictment Division, judgment of 27 June 1984 previously cited and judgment of 31 October 1984, Li Siu Lung et autres, GP 1985, sommaires, pp. 94 - 95).
(b) The investigating judge can only issue such a warrant "where there is a presumption that a specific offence has been committed which has given rise to the investigation" which he is responsible for conducting and not in respect of a whole category of offences "on the off chance"; this is clear not only from Articles 81 and 151 (second and third paragraphs) of the Code of Criminal Procedure but also "from the general principles of criminal procedure" (see, among other authorities, Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, judgments of 23 July 1985, 4 November 1987 and 15 March 1988 previously cited).
The French courts do not seem ever to have held that telephone tapping is lawful only where the offences being investigated are of some seriousness or if the investigating judge has specified a maximum duration for it.
(c) "Within the limits of the warrant" that has been issued to him - if need be by fax (Limoges Court of Appeal, Criminal Division, 18 November 1988, Lecesne et autres, DS 1989, sommaires, p. 394) - the senior police officer exercises "all the powers of the investigating judge" (Article 152 of the Code of Criminal Procedure). He exercises these under the supervision of the investigating judge, who by the fifth paragraph of Article 81 is bound to "verify the information ... gathered" (see, among other authorities, Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, judgments of 9 October 1980, 24 April 1984, 23 July 1985, 4 November 1987 and 15 March 1988 previously cited).
The warrant apparently sometimes takes the form of a general delegation of powers, including - without its being expressly mentioned - the power to tap telephones (Court of Cassation, Civil Division, second section, judgment of 18 March 1955 previously cited, and Paris Court of Appeal, judgment of 28 March 1960 previously cited).
(d) In no case may a police officer tap telephones on his own initiative without a warrant, for example during the preliminary investigation preceding the opening of the judicial investigation (see, among other authorities, Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, 13 June 1989, Derrien, and 19 June 1989, Grayo, Bull. no. 254, pp. 635 - 637, and no. 261, pp. 648 - 651; full court, 24 November 1989, Derrien, DS 1990, p. 34, and JCP 1990, jurisprudence, no. 21418, with the submissions of Mr Advocate-General Emile Robert).
(e) Telephone tapping must not be accompanied by "any subterfuge or ruse" (see, among other authorities, Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, judgment of 9 October 1980, 24 April 1984, 23 July 1985, 4 November 1987, 15 February 1988 and 15 March 1988 previously cited) failing which the information gathered by means of it must be either deleted or removed from the case file (Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, judgments of 13 and 19 June 1989 previously cited).
(f) The telephone tapping must also be carried out "in such a way that the exercise of the rights of the defence cannot be jeopardised" (see, among other authorities, Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, judgments of 9 October 1980, 24 April 1984, 23 July 1985, 4 November 1987, 15 February 1988, 15 March 1988 and 19 June 1989 previously cited). In particular, the confidentiality of the relations between suspect or person accused and lawyer must be respected, as must, more generally, a lawyer"s duty of professional confidentiality, at least when he is not acting in any other capacity (Aix-en-Provence Court of Appeal, Indictment Division, 16 June 1982 and 2 February 1983, Sadji Hamou et autres, GP 1982, jurisprudence, pp. 645 - 649, and GP 1983, jurisprudence, pp. 313 - 315; Paris Court of Appeal, Indictment Division, judgment of 27 June 1984 previously cited).
(g) With this reservation, it is permissible to tap telephone calls to or from a charged person (Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, judgments of 9 October 1980 and 24 April 1984 previously cited) or a mere suspect, such as Mr Terrieux in the instant case (see paragraph 9 above and also the previously cited judgments of the Strasbourg tribunal de grande instance, 15 February 1983, the Colmar Court of Appeal, 9 March 1984, and the Indictment Division of the Paris Court of Appeal, 27 June 1984) or even a third party, such as a witness, whom there is reason to believe to be in possession of information about the perpetrators or circumstances of the offence (see, among other authorities, Aix-en-Provence Court of Appeal, judgment of 16 June 1982 previously cited).
(h) A public telephone-box may be tapped (Seine Criminal Court, Tenth Division, 30 October 1964, {Tresor} public et {Societe} de courses c. L. et autres, DS 1965, jurisprudence, pp. 423-424) just like a private line, irrespective of whether current is diverted to a listening station (Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, 13 June 1989, and full court, 24 November 1989, previously cited).
(i) The senior police officer supervises the tape or cassette recording of the conversations and their transcription, where he does not carry out these operations himself; when it comes to choosing extracts to submit "for examination by the court", it is for him to determine "what words may render the speaker liable to criminal proceedings". He performs these duties "on his own responsibility and under the supervision of the investigating judge" (Strasbourg tribunal de grande instance, judgment of 15 February 1983 previously cited, upheld by the Colmar Court of Appeal on 9 March 1984; Paris Court of Appeal, judgment of 27 June 1984 previously cited).
(j) The original tapes - which in the instant case were sealed (see paragraphs 8 - 9 above) - are "exhibits", not "investigation documents", but have only the weight of circumstantial evidence; their contents are transcribed in reports in order to give them a physical form so that they can be inspected (Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, 28 April 1987, Allieis, Bull. no. 173, pp. 462 - 467).
(k) If transcription raises a problem of translation into French, Articles 156 et seq. of the Code of Criminal Procedure, which deal with expert opinions, do not apply to the appointment and work of the translator (Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, 6 September 1988, Fekari, Bull. no. 317, pp. 861 - 862 (extracts), and 18 December 1989, M. et autres, not yet reported).
(l) There is no statutory provision prohibiting the inclusion in the file on a criminal case of evidence from other proceedings, such as tapes and reports containing transcriptions, if they may "assist the judges and help to establish the truth", provided that such evidence is added under an adversarial procedure (Toulouse Court of Appeal, Indictment Division, 16 April 1985 - see paragraph 11 above; Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, 23 July 1985 - see paragraph 12 above - and 6 September 1988 previously cited).
(m) The defence must be able to inspect the reports containing transcriptions, to hear the original tape recordings, to challenge their authenticity during the judicial investigation and subsequent trial and to apply for any necessary investigative measures - such as an expert opinion, as in the instant case (see paragraph 10 in fine) - relating to their contents and the circumstances in which they were made (see, among other authorities, Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, 23 July 1985 - see paragraph 12 above; 16 July 1986, Illouz, unreported; and 28 April 1987, Allieis, previously cited).
(n) Just as the investigating judge supervises the senior police officer, he is himself supervised by the Indictment Division, to which he - exactly like the public prosecutor - may apply under Article 171 of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
Trial courts, courts of appeal and the Court of Cassation may have to deal with objections or grounds of appeal as the case may be - particularly by defendants but also, on occasion, by the prosecution (Court of Cassation, judgments of 19 June and 24 November 1989 previously cited) - based on a failure to comply with the requirements summarised above or with other rules which the parties concerned claim are applicable. A failure of this kind, however, would not automatically nullify the proceedings such that a court of appeal could be held to have erred if it had not dealt with them of its own motion; they affect only defence rights (Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, 11 December 1989, Takrouni, not yet reported).
21. Since at least 1981, parties have increasingly often relied on Article 8 (art. 8) of the Convention - and, much less frequently, on Article 6 (art. 6) (Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, 23 April 1981, Pellegrin et autres, Bull. no. 117, pp. 328 - 335, and 21 November 1988, S. et autres) - in support of their complaints about telephone tapping; they have sometimes as in the instant case (see paragraph 12 above) - cited the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights.
Hitherto only telephone tapping carried out without a warrant, during the police investigation (see, among other authorities, Court of Cassation, judgments of 13 June and 24 November 1989 previously cited), or in unexplained circumstances (see, among other authorities, Court of Cassation, judgment of 19 June 1989 previously cited) or in violation of defence rights (Paris Court of Appeal, Indictment Division, judgment of 31 October 1984, previously cited) has been held by the French courts to be contrary to Article 8 § 2 (art. 8-2) ("in accordance with the law") or to domestic law in the strict sense. In all other cases the courts have either found no violation (Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, judgments of 24 April 1984, 23 July 1985, 16 July 1986, 28 April 1987, 4 November 1987, 15 February 1988, 15 March 1988, 6 September 1988 and 18 December 1989 previously cited, and 16 November 1988, S. et autre, unreported, and the judgments of 15 February 1983 (Strasbourg), 9 March 1984 (Colmar) and 27 June 1984 (Paris) previously cited) or else ruled the plea inadmissible for various reasons (Court of Cassation, Criminal Division, judgments of 23 April 1981, 21 November 1988 and 11 December 1989 previously cited and the unreported judgments of 24 May 1983, S. et autres; 23 May 1985, Y. H. W.; 17 February 1986, H.; 4 November 1986, J.; and 5 February 1990, B. et autres).
22. While academic opinion is divided as to the compatibility of telephone tapping as carried out in France - on the orders of investigating judges or others - with the national and international legal rules in force in the country, there seems to be unanimous agreement that it is desirable and even necessary for Parliament to try to solve the problem by following the example set by many foreign States (see in particular {Gaetan} di Marino, comments on the Tournet judgment of 9 October 1980 (Court of Cassation), JCP 1981, jurisprudence, no. 19578; Albert Chavanne, "Les {resultats} de l"audio-surveillance comme preuve {penale}", Revue internationale de droit {compare}, 1986, pp. 752 - 753 and 755; {Gerard} Cohen-Jonathan, "Les {ecoutes telephoniques}", Studies in honour of {Gerard} J. Wiarda, 1988, p. 104; Jean Pradel, "Ecoutes {telephoniques} et Convention {europeenne} des Droits de l"Homme", DS 1990, chronique, pp. 17 - 20). In July 1981 the Government set up a study group chaired by Mr Robert Schmelck, who was then President of the Court of Cassation, and consisting of senators and MPs of various political persuasions, judges, university professors, senior civil servants, judges and a barrister. The group submitted a report on 25 June 1982, but this has remained confidential and has not yet led to a bill being tabled.
PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE COMMISSION
23. Before the Commission, to which he applied on 16 October 1985 (application no. 11801/85), Mr Kruslin put forward a single ground of complaint: he argued that the interception and recording of his telephone conversation on 17 June 1982 had infringed Article 8 (art. 8) of the Convention.
The Commission declared the application admissible on 6 May 1988. In its report of 14 December 1988 (made under Article 31) (art. 31) it expressed the opinion by ten votes to two that there had indeed been a breach of that Article (art. 8). The full text of the Commission"s opinion and of the separate opinion contained in the report is reproduced as an annex to this judgment <*>.
--------------------------------
<*> Note by the Registrar: For practical reasons this annex will appear only with the printed version of the judgment (volume 176-A of Series A of the Publications of the Court), but a copy of the Commission"s report is obtainable from the registry.
FINAL SUBMISSIONS TO THE COURT
24. At the hearing the Court was requested:
(a) by the Agent of the Government to "hold that there ha[d] been no breach of Article 8 (art. 8) of the Convention in the instant case";
(b) by the Delegate of the Commission to "conclude that in the instant case there ha[d] been a breach of Article 8 (art. 8)"; and
(c) by counsel for the applicant to "find the French Government in breach in this case".
AS TO THE LAW
I. Alleged violation of Article 8 (art. 8)
25. Mr Kruslin claimed that in the instant case there had been a breach of Article 8 (art. 8), which provides:
"1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.
2. There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others."
The Government disputed that submission, while the Commission agreed with it in substance.
26. Although it was Mr Terrieux"s line that they were tapping, the police in consequence intercepted and recorded several of the applicant"s conversations, and one of these led to proceedings being taken against him (see paragraphs 9 - 10 above). The telephone tapping therefore amounted to an "interference by a public authority" with the exercise of the applicant"s right to respect for his "correspondence" and his "private life" (see the Klass and Others judgment of 8 September 1978, Series A no. 28, p. 21, § 41, and the Malone judgment of 2 August 1984, Series A no. 82, p. 30, § 64). The Government did not dispute this.
Such an interference contravenes Article 8 (art. 8) unless it is "in accordance with the law", pursues one or more of the legitimate aims referred to in paragraph 2 (art. 8-2) and furthermore is "necessary in a democratic society" in order to achieve them.
A. "In accordance with the law"
27. The expression "in accordance with the law", within the meaning of Article 8 § 2 (art. 8-2), requires firstly that the impugned measure should have some basis in domestic law; it also refers to the quality of the law in question, requiring that it should be accessible to the person concerned, who must moreover be able to foresee its consequences for him, and compatible with the rule of law.
1. Whether there was a legal basis in French law
28. It was a matter of dispute before the Commission and the Court whether the first condition was satisfied in the instant case.
The applicant said it was not. Article 368 of the Criminal Code, he claimed, prohibited telephone tapping in principle (see paragraph 18 above). It took precedence over Article 81 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, which did not expressly authorise telephone tapping and required the investigating judge to behave "in accordance with the law" - and therefore in accordance, inter alia, with Article 368 of the Criminal Code - when ordering any steps "useful for establishing the truth" (see paragraph 17 above). Articles 151 and 152 (ibid.) made no difference, he added, as investigating judges could not delegate to senior police officers powers which they did not have themselves. The Delegate of the Commission agreed as to the latter point.
In the Government"s submission, there was no contradiction between Article 368 of the Criminal Code and Article 81 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, at least not if regard was had to the drafting history of the former (see paragraph 18 above). The Code of Criminal Procedure, they argued, did not give an exhaustive list of the investigative means available to the investigating judge - measures as common as the taking of photographs or fingerprints, shadowing, surveillance, requisitions, confrontations between witnesses, and recon

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