РЕКОМЕНДАЦИЯ n 16 Европейской экономической комиссии ООН<ЛОКОД ООН - КЛАССИФИКАТОР ПОРТОВ И ДРУГИХ ПУНКТОВ> (третье издание) (ece/trade/227) [англ.](Вместе с <РУКОВОДСТВОМ ПО ЛОКОД ООН>)(Принята в г. Женеве в декабре 1998 года Центром по упрощению процедур и практики в управлении, торговле и на транспорте)

(Geneva, XII.1998)
The work to prepare codes, i.a for ports commenced in 1972, when the UN / ECE Working Party on Facilitation of International Trade Procedures agreed to include this task in its programme of work, later on specified as follows: "to establish the need to designate various locations involved in external trade (cities, ports, airports, border crossings, terminals, etc. with a view to the subsequent creation of codes". After consultation with other regional United Nations commissions (ECLAC and ESCAP) and with the International Air Transport Association (IATA), a programme of action for the development of a code was agreed in September 1977. As a result, a draft Recommendation was submitted to the Working Party on Facilitation of International Trade Procedures and adopted at its twelfth session in September 1980. The Working Party, at its forty-second session in September 1995, approved a second edition of Recommendation No. 16, based on secretariat proposals for amendments and including an Annex containing the UN / LOCODE Manual.
As a result of re-engineering its structures and work in order to become more efficient and effective, in March of 1997 the Working Party on Facilitation of International Trade Procedures became the Centre for the Facilitation of Procedures and Practices for Administration, Commerce and Transport (UN / CEFACT).
Based on proposals put forward by an Ad Hoc Group of Experts, UN / CEFACT, at its fourth session in September 1998, adopted the third edition of Recommendation No. 16.
At its fourth CEFACT Session in September 1998, representatives attended from the following countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Poland, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America. The European Union (EU), the following inter-governmental organizations:
Bank for International Settlements (BIS) and the World Trade Organization (WTO)., the following United Nations bodies: The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the following non-governmental organizations: European Electronic Messaging Association (EEMA), International Article Numbering Association (EAN) International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Societe Internationale de Telecommunications Aeronautiques (SITA), Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (S.W.I.F.T) and the United Towns Agency for North-South Cooperation., and as Observers: representatives from the Association of Committees on Simplified Procedures for International Trade within the European Community and the European Free Trade Association (EUROPRO), Electronic Commerce Europe Association (ECEA), European Board for EDI / EC Standardization (EBES), International Federation of Inspection Agencies (IFIA), Taipei EDIFACT Committee (TEC).
The Centre for the Facilitation of Procedures and Practices for Administration Commerce and Transport (UN / CEFACT),
Being aware of the need for an internationally agreed code system to represent names of certain locations of interest in international trade and transport;
Considering that the code system should be based on the two-letter alphabetic codes for the representation of names of countries, adopted in International Standard ISO 3166 and recommended by the Working Party in October 1974;
Recommends that the five-character code system described hereafter should be used for purposes of trade to designate locations whenever there is a need for a coded representation for the names of ports, airports, inland clearance depots, inland freight terminals and other transport related locations, such as places of receipt and delivery, which are used for goods movements associated with trade (for example locations where Customs clearance of goods can take place), or otherwise proposed by Governments;
Invites Governments to transmit lists of entities with code designations according to the established criteria and to ensure that each national list is continuously updated and communicated to the United Nations secretariat, responsible for the maintenance of the code system.
1. The identification of a particular location is frequently required in information interchange in international trade and transport, to direct the movement of goods, e.g. in addresses, in shipping marks, and in data elements identifying ports of call, ports or places of loading or unloading, ports or places of transhipment and destination, places of clearance by Customs, etc.
2. The names of such locations are often spelt in different ways and sometimes the same location is given different names in different languages (e.g. LIVORNO - LIBOURNE - LEGHORN; LONDON - LONDRES - LONDRA; WARZSAW - VARSOVIE - WARSZAWA - WARSCHAU), which creates confusion and difficulties in data interchange. The identification in a unique and unambiguous way of any place involved in international trade is therefore an essential element for the facilitation of trade procedures and documentation. This can be achieved by using agreed, unique coded designations for such locations; this would have the added advantage of permitting an exchange of data in a safer and more economical way.
3. For these reasons, in 1972, the Working Party on Facilitation of International Trade Procedures agreed to include in its programme of work the tasks of preparing a code for port names and of establishing the need to designate various locations involved in external trade, with a view to the subsequent creation of codes.
4. There are several examples of location code systems in use, covering places in individual countries, or belonging to a certain category, e.g. airports. Many countries have developed code systems for distribution of mail. However, these often include features reflecting methods of postal distribution rendering them less suitable for general trade purposes.
5. The first part of the task therefore was to prepare lists of the ports and other locations to be covered. It became necessary to establish criteria for the inclusion of names of localities and it was agreed to include - in addition to airports, inland freight terminals and maritime ports as defined for this purpose - other locations where goods have their status changed from moving in international to national traffic, i.e. normally places with Customs clearance facilities (including locations referred to as "frontier crossing points"). Moreover, it was felt that any other locations could be included at the request of the Government concerned (in the present version, the criteria for inclusion have been extended to cover all locations which are frequently used for goods movements associated with international trade).
6. Major contributions towards the establishment of the entity list were made by the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS), the International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). In addition, the secretariat had full-access to the list of airports and other locations maintained by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Contributions were also received from a number of Governments.
7. As to the code structure, particular attention was given to the three-letter alphabetical code already used within the air transport industry to designate airports and certain other locations. These codes have been widely used over a long period, have in most cases a mnemonic link to the place name, and have been introduced in other applications, notably in the ports code developed by ECLAC. It was, however, appreciated that the number of locations that could be foreseen, and the desirability of maintaining a reasonable mnemonic link, whilst at the same time avoiding duplication of code designations for places with similar names, would require a code consisting of more than three alphabetic characters. The solution preferred was to add two characters designating the country, in accordance with International Standard ISO 3166/1974 and recommended by the Working Party in October 1974, thus including a further element of identification and limiting the need for uniqueness of the location code for each place name to the country concerned.
8. The question of a numerical code alternative was considered, particularly for countries where the Roman alphabet is not widely used. However, there has been no subsequent demand for a numerical code. The need to add classifying elements to the basic code element was demonstrated. Such classifying elements which are generally required and accepted have been included in the code list in the course of its continuous updating and maintenance.
9. This Recommendation aims at (a) providing a list of such locations which are of interest in international trade and transport and whose names need to be quoted in an unambiguous way in data interchange, (b) establishing coded representations of the names of these locations and (c) giving guidance for their use.
10. This Recommendation applies in all cases where a coded representation is required for names of ports, airports, inland clearance depots and freight terminals and other locations, such as places of receipt and delivery, which are used for goods movements associated with trade, for use in information exchange between participants in such trade.
11. The following definitions have been adopted for the purposes of this Recommendation:
Port: Any location with permanent facilities at which vessels can load or discharge cargo moving in maritime traffic.
Airport: Any location with permanent facilities at which aircraft can load or discharge cargo moving in air traffic.
Inland Clearance Depot (ICD): A common user facility, other than a port or an airport, approved by a competent body, equipped with fixed installations and offering services for handling and temporary storage of any kind of goods (including containers) carried under Customs transit by any applicable mode of transport, placed under Customs control and with Customs and other agencies competent to clear goods for home use, warehousing, temporary admission, re-export, temporary storage for onward transit and outright export. (Definition applies also to synonyms like Dry Port, Inland Clearance Terminal, etc.)
Inland freight terminal: Any facility, other than a port or an airport, operated on a common-user basis, at which cargo in trade is received or dispatched.
Location: Any named geographical place, recognised by a competent national body, either with permanent facilities used for goods movements associated with trade, and used for these purposes, or proposed by the Government concerned or by a competent national or international organisation for inclusion in the UN / LOCODE..
12. The following general definitions apply for the purposes of this Recommendation:
Code: Data transformation or data representation in different forms according to pre-established rules. (Definition adapted from ISO 5127-1:1983)
Code element: Result of applying a code to an element in a set of elements to be coded (In UN / LOCODE, one code element represents the name of a port, an airport, inland clearance depot, inland freight terminal, or a location). (Definition adapted from ISO 2382-4/1987)
13. The following references serve as supporting documentation to this Recommendation:
ISO 8859-1/1987 "Information Processing -8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 1: Latin Alphabet No. 1"
ISO 10646-1/1993 "Information Technology - Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) - Part 1"
ISO 3166-1/1997 "Codes for the representation of Names of countries and their sub-divisions - Part 1: Country Codes"
ISO 3166-2/1998 "Codes for the representation of Names of countries and their sub-divisions - Part 2: Country subdivision code"
IATA Airline Coding Directory (published quarterly)
ECLA Ports Code, Edition March 1978
ESCAP Port Code of the World, 1979
UN/ECE/FAL Recommendation No. 3 on ISO Country Code - Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries
Gazetteers or other reference works of location names nominated to and accepted by UN / CEFACT to serve as a support to the UN / LOCODE
14. The code system laid down in this Recommendation may be referred to as the "United Nations LOCODE" (UN / LOCODE).
15. UN / LOCODE is intended to cover ports, airports, inland clearance depots and freight terminals and other locations, as defined above, for purposes of international trade data interchange.
16. It is recognised that the coverage may not be complete for all applications, and that code elements for locations which may not be of interest in international trade might be needed for domestic purposes in conjunction with the international code. Although such additional entities might not be shown in the published code element list, they may be included in the records and code elements reserved by the secretariat, as appropriate, in consultation with Governments and international bodies concerned, as part of the updating and maintenance procedures. It is also recognised that users might wish to make a selection of relevant entities from the published list, and that abridged versions might be established for particular applications.
17. Place names, code elements and designations used in UN / LOCODE do not reflect any opinion concerning international, national, local or other boundaries, ownership or administrative jurisdiction, but merely aim at providing unambiguous and unique code elements to represent the names of the locations included.
18. In addition to the present formal Recommendation, the UN / LOCODE includes, as an Annex, the UN / LOCODE Manual which has three parts. Part 1 provides the technical details and further information regarding the features of the UN / LOCODE. Part 2 contains the actual code list with a list of place names,

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