РЕКОМЕНДАЦИЯ n 21/rev.2 Европейской экономической комиссии ООН<КОДЫ ДЛЯ ВИДОВ ГРУЗА, УПАКОВКИ И МАТЕРИАЛОВ УПАКОВКИ (С ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫМИ КОДАМИ ДЛЯ НАИМЕНОВАНИЙ УПАКОВКИ)> (ece/trade/211) [англ.](Принята в г. Женеве в сентябре 1996 года Рабочей группой по упрощению процедур международной торговли)

(Geneva, IX.1996)
The Working Party on Facilitation of International Trade Procedures, a subsidiary body of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, agreed to include in its programme of work in 1976 a project to specify various types and methods of packaging with a view to the subsequent creation of codes for names of packages most frequently used in trade. The aim was to provide a link between documents and goods and facilitate the identification of goods and other cargo handling operations during transport.
Realizing that other international bodies, such as the UN/ECE Inland Transport Committee, the European Economic Community (EEC), the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and the International Union of Railways (UIC) also had a strong interest in and had undertaken work on this subject, the UN/ECE Working Party in 1981 invited the secretariats of all interested international organizations to examine the various concepts and to collaborate to harmonize the different codes. After extensive national and international consultation and collaboration, in 1986 a final project was transmitted to the Working Party which at its twenty-third session in March 1986 agreed to adopt the appropriate Recommendation.
At its thirty-ninth session (March 1994), the Working Party agreed to approve the proposal made by the delegation of Canada in document TRADE/WP.4/R.895 to incorporate, as an additional annex, the packaging codes used for the transportation of dangerous goods into the Recommendation and to amend it appropriately.
The Working Party on Facilitation of International Trade Procedures,
Bearing in mind the rapid and accelerating pace of the introduction of new transport and data processing techniques and urgent need to adapt trade procedures to such new techniques;
Noting that there is a need to harmonize existing expressions and codes used in international trade procedures to describe and represent different types cargo, packages and packaging materials;
Recommends Governments and organizations responsible for relevant national regulations and practices related to the movement of goods in international trade to support international facilitation work by considering the codes described in the present recommendation with a view to introducing them in such regulations and in practice;
Recommends organizations responsible for international instruments that contain codes such as those covered by the present recommendation to consider harmonization of any such codes in accordance with those presented hereafter when reviewing existing or preparing new international provisions;
Recommends participants in international trade to use, as required, the numeric codes presented in this recommendation when there is a need for such codes in trade procedures to represent different types of cargo, packages, and packaging materials;
Recommends participants in international trade to use, as required, the complementary alphabetic codes presented in this recommendation when there is a need for such codes in trade procedures to represent names of packages;
Invites Governments and international organizations concerned to notify the Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission for Europe of the extent to which they are able to harmonize the relevant codes for which they carry responsibility or to communicate the reasons for being unable to do so.
At the thirty-ninth session of the Working Party representatives attended from: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America. Representatives from Australia, Brazil, Gabon, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Nigeria and Senegal participated under Article 11 of the Commission"s terms of reference.
The session was attended by representatives of the European Union (EU).
The session was also attended by representatives of the secretariat of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), and the International Trade Centre UNCTAD/GATT (ITC), as well as by representatives of the following intergovernmental organizations: Universal Postal Union (UPU), European Free Trade Association (EFTA), Central Office for International Railway Transport (OCTI) and Customs Co-operation Council (CCC). The following non-governmental organizations were represented: Comite International des Transport Ferroviares (CIT), International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Article Numbering Association (EAN), International Express Carriers" Conference (IECC), International Road Transport Union (IRU), International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), International Union of Railways (UIC), Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (S.W.I.F.T.), Union des Administrations Portuaires du Nord de I"Afrique (UAPNA). Also present at the invitation of the secretariat were representatives of the Taipei EDIFACT Committee, SITPROSA (Trade Facilitation Committee of the Republic of South Africa) and International Federation of Inspection Agencies (IFIA).
1. International trade implies the movement of goods over international boundaries. For several reasons these goods need to be described and identified while they are being moved. Identification marks ("shipping marks") are essential for this purpose and descriptions of the nature of the merchandise may also be helpful. But the appearance of the goods as presented for transport is a very useful means to identify them and is also of vital importance for handling operations, for planning and statistical recording of such operations and as a basis for the establishment of freight and cargo handling tariffs.
2. The harmonization of expressions and concepts used to describe and identify goods and cargo moving in transport has been recognized as a problem that needs attention within the framework of the international work on facilitation of trade procedures. It is recognized that valuable work has already been undertaken by unimodal transport operators and by some official regulatory agencies responsible for health and safety standards in transport of certain products (e.g. food, plants, drugs, dangerous goods and hazardous wastes). But these have been independent efforts and there is at present a number of non-harmonized terms and codes for loads, packagings and other modes of appearance of goods in transport and transport-related operations. This lack of harmonization has caused difficulties, for consecutive cargo operations by different modes of transport as well as for the forwarding and packaging industries and the recording of statistics on international trade and transport.
3. The computerization of transport procedures has further increased the need for harmonization. Standardized data elements are a pre-requisite for data interchange between trading partners and other private or official participants in trade, for paper-less interchange by automated means and also for simplified documentary procedures.
4. In 1976 the UN/ECE Working Party on Facilitation of International Trade Procedures agreed on a new work item: to develop a packaging code with the main aim of linking documents to consignments. At that time the International Union of Railways (UIC), together with the Organization for the Collaboration of Railways (OSZhD), was developing packaging codes for the needs of railway transport and the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) was developing such codes for maritime transport. UIC and ICS undertook to work as co-rapporteurs for the new work item. The aim was to establish a harmonized coding system, in the belief that such a standard would be of considerable general interest, inter alia for trade facilitation. The offer was gratefully accepted by the Working Party.
5. The work of the co-rapporteurs involved the listing of various names for packages and their synonyms, consideration of the meanings of detailed descriptions, and preparing diagrams for easy recognition. A comprehensive report was transmitted to the Working Party in 1981 (TRADE/WP.4/R.140); the analysis and methodology developed during the work resulted in the establishment of a structure which provided for a three-tiered numeric system of four digits, with a first digit for "unit loads", second and third digits for fifty-seven recognized package types and a fourth digit for specifying packaging materials. Within this flexible structure further international harmonization could be pursued.
6. In 1977 the ECE Inland Transport Committee agreed to the proposal by the thirty-first session of the Group of Experts on Transport Statistics that the Commodity Classification for Transport Statistics in Europe (CSTE) should be adapted to current needs. The terms of reference for a task force set up for this work included "consideration of the possibilities to incorporate characteristics of handling cargo in the CSTE".
7. The Governments of Belgium and the Netherlands undertook to collaborate on this item and submitted a joint paper in April 1979 (TRANS/GE.6/R.21), which recommended a one-digit classification, separate from the CSTE, for cargo-handling characteristics in four modes of transport (sea, inland water-way, rail and road) to be known as "mode of appearance". The European Economic Community submitted a draft one-digit cargo classification applicable to all modes of transport in 1981 (TRANS/GE.6/R.36).
8. The Shipping Division of UNCTAD developed in 1979 a one-digit "broad packing code" and also a two-digit "detailed packing code" for the "Manual on a Uniform System of Port Statistics and Performance Indicators".
9. The Working Party on Facilitation of International Trade Procedures realised that other international bodies such as the Customs Co-operation Council (CCC), and regional economic groupings also had a strong interest in the coding project. The secretariat of the ECE undertook to report on their work and to ascertain which organizations would participate in an examination of the compatibility of various concepts (TRADE/WP.4/R.202). The secretariats of the interested international organizations were invited by the ECE secretariat to collaborate with a view to achieving the optimum future harmonization of classification and, if possible, of codes. Five such inter-secretariat meetings, serviced by the Trade Division of the UN/ECE and chaired by the Statistical Office of the European Communities (SOEC), were arranged at Geneva between 1981 and 1985.
10. The first meeting examined the purposes of the various codes and agreed that they should cover all goods in all modes of transport and should classify them according to the most external cover or wrapping. The meeting also agreed on the first five common categories for a one-digit cargo classification. The second meeting (September 1982) examined underlying principles and practical problems (synonyms, simultaneous packagings in "combination", complications related to dangerous goods etc). It was agreed:
1) to identify "preferred" terms,
2) to envisage both simple applications covering only one packaging (e.g. the EEC and UNCTAD codes) and complex applications for combined packagings (UIC/ICS code) and
3) to omit reference to dangerous goods (because danger was a characteristic of the goods, not of the package, and could be present also in unpacked bulk gods). The third meeting (June 1984) agreed that "shape" should be the basic criterion for classifying packaging types and that the first digit could be a one-digit code for packages. Codes were allocated to nine types of cargo, nine types of packages (arranged in order from the most to the least frequent) and to eight types of packaging materials. The fourth inter-secretariat meeting (February 1985) agreed, in view of comments received, to apply the "shape" criterion more consistently to package types, a further breakdown was suggested according to "size".
11. The final meeting (November 1985) prepared a draft Recommendation, in the form of a structured, numeric code system for cargo units (one-digit), package types (one-digit or, optionally, two-digits) and packaging materials (one-digit). The UN/ECE secretariat prepared complimentary two-letter codes to represent the most frequently used package names. Pictorial symbols were added to the textual descriptions to provide a visual association between the codes and the types of packages that they represent.
12. After further extensive national and international consultations the present recommendation was adopted at the twenty-third session of the UN/ECE Working Party on Facilitation of International Trade Procedures, in March 1986.
13. This Recommendation establishes a numeric code system to represent types of cargo, packages and packaging materials in trade, transport and other economic activities related to international trade. The Recommendation also establishes complementary alphabetic codes for names of packages.
14. At its thirty-ninth session, the Working Party agreed to approve the proposal made by the delegation of Canada in document TRADE/WP.4/R.895 to incorporate, as an additional annex, the packaging codes used for the transportation of dangerous goods into the Recommendation and to amend it appropriately.
15. The code system and the codes provided for in this Recommendation are intended for use in data interchange between participants in international trade, by automatic interchange methods, and also in other applications. The codes are also intended for use in manual systems, e.g. to complement or substitute plain language descriptions in forms used in international trade. Where appropriate and desirable, the codes can be used in the context of other economic activities.
16. For the purpose of this Recommendation the following definitions apply:
Cargo: The load of goods carried on board a ship or on another means of transport; <*>
<*> Cargo can consist of either liquid or solid materials or substances, without any packaging (e.g. bulk cargo), or of

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