Рекомендация n 20 европейской экономической комиссии оон"коды для единиц измерения, используемых в международной торговле" (ece/trade/273) [рус., англ.](принята в г. женеве 26.03.2001 - 29.03.2001 на 7-ой сессии центром по упрощению процедур торговли и электронным деловым операциям)

a single list of code elements for units of measure for use worldwide in administration, commerce, transport, science and technology is provided.
Taking note, that the units of measure specified herein are provided to the user for the representation of physical quantities currently employed in international or regional trade. And taking note that this collection of units neither claims to address quantities or units of measure of a non-physical nature nor does it include historic units of measure not generally encountered in present day usage.
Recommends that participants in international trade when there is a need for coded representations of units of measure use the codes for such units presented in the lists annexed to this present Recommendation.
1. In international trade there is a need for the greatest possible clarity in the use of units of measure not only for the fulfilment of commercial contracts but also for the application of laws and regulations governing international trade procedures.
2. In 1875 the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures BIPM (International Bureau of Weights and Measures) was established at Sevres (France). The Bureau was provided for in the Convention du metre signed that year at the first General Conference on Weights and Measures. The BIPM has a bilingual (English and French) Web site at http://www.bipm.fr.
3. The Systeme International d"Unites (International System of Units), with the abbreviation SI (see BIPM Web site above), was adopted by the eleventh General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960.
4. These and other international efforts to harmonize units of measure and to ensure comparable results through common rules of application of standardized measures have aimed at contributing, inter alia, to a better understanding between trading partners, to improved conditions for Customs clearance and to ensuring comparability of international trade and transport statistics.
5. In countries where the International System of Units has been introduced, national units of measure are harmonized with those of other SI unit countries. In countries where other systems prevail, quantities are recorded for the general purpose of trade, transport and statistics in units of measure other than SI units. To achieve comparability in international trade and transport statistics, factors should be provided for conversion from units of one system of measure to corresponding units of another system.
6. Basic relationships between the metric system and the British imperial system of weights and measures and the above-mentioned factors were provided in 1966 by the Statistical Office of the United Nations in the publication "World Weights and Measures. Handbook for Statisticians", Statistical Papers, Series M, No. 21, Rev.1, Sales No. 66. XVII.3.
7. Metric units are being introduced in nations where the British (imperial) system prevails and the SI system has been adopted in principle. To avoid transitional difficulties it has, however, been necessary to provide for a period during which units of measure non-compatible with the SI system can be phased out.
8. International standardization bodies, in particular ISO/TC 12 (ISO Technical Committee 12 - Quantities, units, symbols, conversion factors), and ISO/IEC JTC1 SC32 (ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Sub Committee 32 - Data management and interchange) have published the relevant standards (see section VII - References). This collection of work constitutes an important contribution to the harmonization of standards for international trade. For additional information on ISO, refer to the ISO Web site at http://www.iso.ch.
9. This Recommendation establishes a single list of code elements to represent units of measure for length, mass (weight), volume and other quantities as shown in figure 1 and covering administration, commerce, transport, science, technology, industry etc.
Figure 1
Units of Measure Schema Components
"Informative" "Normative"
¦ 1 1 ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ Qualified ¦ Sales ¦ Packing ¦
L +- Base ¦ Units ¦ Units ¦ ¦
¦ Units ¦ 2 ¦ 3 ¦
¦ 1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ Common Use ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ Multiples ¦ --------------¬ ¦ Shipping + ¦
¦ Fractions ¦ ¦ Base ¦ ¦ Transport ¦ ¦
¦ Decimals ¦ ¦ + ¦ ¦ Units ¦
¦ 8 ¦ ¦ Derived ¦ ¦ 4 ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ SI Units -+ -+ -- -- -- +- --
¦ ¦ L-------------- ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ SI Equivalent -+ -- -- -- +-¬
+--------------+-T-----------------T-+--------------+ ¦
¦ Integers ¦ Information ¦ Industry ¦
¦ Numbers ¦ Technology ¦ Specific ¦ ¦
¦ Ratio ¦ Units ¦ Units ¦
¦ 7 ¦ 6 ¦ 5 ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
L----------------+-----------------+----------------- ¦
10. The code elements provided for in this recommendation are intended for use in manual and / or automated systems for the exchange of information between participants in international trade and of other economic, scientific and technological activities.
11. This Recommendation does not affect the use of code elements, other than those presented in the Annexes, which have been laid down in international conventions or agreements, binding on participants in international trade.
12. For the purpose of this Recommendation the following definition applies:
Unit of measure: - Particular quantity, defined and adopted by convention, with which other quantities of the same kind are compared in order to express their magnitudes relative to that quantity.
Metre Convention, Paris 1875
International Convention Relating to Economic Statistics (1928)
Decision by the eleventh General Conference on Weights and Treasures, 1960, to adopt the Systeme international d"unites (International System of Units) with the abbreviation SI
ISO 31 Quantities and units
ISO Guide 31 Reference materials - Contents of certificates and
ISO 31-0 General principles
ISO 31-1 Space and time
ISO 31-2 Periodic and related phenomena
ISO 31-3 Mechanics
ISO 31-4 Heat
ISO 31-5 Electricity and magnetism
ISO 31-6 Light and related electromagnetic radiations
ISO 31-7 Acoustics
ISO 31-8 Physical chemistry and molecular physics
ISO 31-9 Atomic and nuclear physics
ISO 31-10 Nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations
ISO 31-11 Mathematical signs and symbols for use in the
physical sciences and technology [part 11 is not
relevant for this Recommendation]
ISO 31-12 Characteristic numbers
ISO 31-13 Solid state physics
ISO 1000 SI units and recommendations for the use of their
multiples and of certain other units
ISO 2955 Information processing - Representation of SI and
other units in systems with limited character sets
UN/ECE Recommendation 20: Codes for units of measurement used in
International Trade, Geneva, edition 1985
UN/ECE Recommendation 21: Codes for passengers, types of cargo,
packages and packaging materials
ANSI ASC X12 Data Element Number 355 - Unit or basis for
measurement code
Statistical Papers, series M, No. 21, Rev.1, (66.XVII.3) World Weights and Measures. Handbook for Statisticians. Statistical Office of the United Nations, New York, 1966
Statistical Papers, series M, No. 52, Rev.1, (E.82.XVII.14) International Trade Statistics. Concepts and Definitions, Statistical Office of the United Nations, New York, 1982
13. This Recommendation provides a list of code elements for units of measure to be used in the exchange of information. The codes are intended for application in everyday trade transactions where the increasing use of electronic data exchange makes it desirable to establish such codes. For enterprises that use the United Nations system of aligned trade documents (based on the UN Layout-key for trade documents), or use the United Nations Trade Data Elements Directory (UNTDED) and / or the United Nations Trade Data Interchange Directory (UNTDID) for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), the code list provides another international instrument for the harmonization of terms used in trade aiming at greater clarity and facility in the execution of international trade transactions.
14. In view of the practical aim of the Recommendation, the code list should not be restricted to a single category of units, but should also contain other units of measure, which are widely used in international trade. However, in order to attach importance to the need for worldwide harmonization of units of measure, it was decided to divide the code list into three levels:
- Level 1 - normative: the units from ISO 31 in SI notation, including reference unit plus the standard prefixes as established in ISO 31;
- Level 2 - normative equivalent: the units based on the equivalents of the SI units;
- Level 3 - informative: sets of units, which do not fit into the first two levels but which are required to satisfy user needs. They may be subdivided into sub-categories. The sub-categories are:
- units that are widely used in the international environment;
- units used at regional level, that may have a broader international interest;
- units, that are regional or sectoral only.
The total structure is shown in figure 2.
Figure 2
UOM "Onion Skin" Levels of Standardization
¦ Regional ¦
¦ - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ¬ ¦
¦ Regional with International Interest ¦
¦ ¦ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ¬ ¦ ¦
¦ International ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ -------T-------------T------¬ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦Equivalent to¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ +------+------+------+------+ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦Common¦ SI ¦ Use ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ +------+ +------+ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ Harmonization ¦ ¦ units ¦ ¦Standardization¦
<--+----+----+-----+-- ¦ <-+------+-----+----+----+-
¦ +------+------T------+------+ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ SI units ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦ L------+------+------+------- ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ A ¦
¦ ¦ L- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ¦ ¦
¦ B ¦
¦ L -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - ¦
¦ C ¦
15. When reaching these agreements, the UN/ECE took into account that no binding provisions exist, worldwide, for using a special system. For example, on this point the International Convention Relating to Economic Statistics states only:
"The unit or units of measure in which quantities of each commodity are stated - weight, length, area, capacity, etc. - shall be precisely defined."
"When the quantity of goods of any kind is expressed in any unit or units of measure other than weight, an estimate of the average weight of each unit, or multiple of units, shall be shown in the annual returns."
In case of weights, precise definitions shall be given of the meaning of terms such as "gross weight", "net weight" and "legal net weight", with due regard to the varying significance of the same term when applied to different classes of goods". (Statistical Papers, series M, No. 52, Rev.1, para. 118)
16. In this context the United Nations Statistical Office notes:
"It will be noted that this permits countries to use units suited to domestic purposes, while at the same time making it possible to convert these units to units of weight for purposes of international comparability. Because of the substantial divergence in the units of quantity used by countries, such a provision offers the greatest possibility of obtaining uniform quantity information at low cost. Thus, Governments are urged to take advantage of this option whenever possible". (Statistical Papers, series M, No. 52, Rev.1, para. 118)
17. The imperial system was introduced in 1824. The United Kingdom Weights and Measures Act 1963 establishes units of both the imperial and metric systems as "United Kingdom primary standards". A substantial number of imperial units were no longer officially authorized for use as from 1 September 1980 including square inch, square mile, cubic foot, grain, stone, hundredweight, ton and horsepower. The deadline for phasing out the remaining imperial units is stated in Official Journal of the European Communities No. L357 of 7 December 1989.
18. Inch / pound units of measure used in the United States,

РЕКОМЕНДАЦИЯ n 19 Европейской экономической комиссии ООН"КОДЫ ВИДОВ ТРАНСПОРТА" (второе издание) (ece/trade/272) [рус., англ.](Принята в г. Женеве 26.03.2001 - 29.03.2001 на 7-ой сессии Центром по упрощению процедур торговли и электронным деловым операциям)  »
Международное законодательство »
Читайте также